Automating Azure AD group-based licensing in a CI/CD Pipeline

Now that we have the PowerShell to get subscriptions, calculate dependencies and assign licences to groups, as well as create groups, we can bring this all together to automate in a CI/CD pipeline. This is in part based upon the Azure AD groups pipeline.

I’m using Azure DevOps to execute my Pipeline, but with some tweaks the YAML could run in GitHub Actions, making it relatively easy to use on either platform.

Both Azure Pipelines and GitHub Actions have free tiers for public projects, and free execution minutes for private projects.

This post covers the YAML and PowerShell executed in the pipeline, the PowerShell can also be called directly or executed in a Windows Server docker container, making this quite portable and versatile.

Current Import & Validate Status Current Plan & Evaluate Status Current Apply & Deploy Status Overall CI/CD Pipeline Status
Build Status Build Status Build Status Build Status

The apply stage is skipped when there are no changes to deploy, and so may show as “cancelled”

Pipeline Stages

Trigger Pipeline

You can access the trigger pipeline on my GitHub here. This trigger contains an extend, so that each stage of the rest of the pipeline is included.

Pipeline YAML example below:

Expand code block
trigger:
  batch: true
  branches:
    include:
    - main
  paths:
    include:
      - AzureAD/Subscriptions/

schedules:
- cron: "0 */1 * * *"
  displayName: Run hourly every day
  branches:
    include:
    - main
  always: true

pr: none

extends:
  template: ../Shared/azure-pipelines.yml

What does this do?

  • This triggers on a change to the main branch, for a specific path within the Graph API Config repo
    • This prevents runs on changes to other config files within the repo
  • Changes are batched, so the pipeline will only execute once concurrently
    • This is necessary as if the pipeline ran more than once concurrently, subsequent runs could use stale data to create the “plan” of actions to “apply”
  • This is also executed on an hourly schedule for the main branch, and will always run, even if there are no changes to the branch
    • This is so that new subscription licences are picked up from Azure AD and the pipeline executed
  • The pipeline is not triggered on pull requests, as this pipeline runs in my sandbox tenant already
    • If triggered on a production repo, this PR could be used to execute the pipeline against a dev environment
  • An extend is included, leading to the shared template that contains all the stages of the pipeline

Shared Pipeline

You can access the shared pipeline on my GitHub here.

Pipeline YAML example below:

Azure Pipelines automatically clones the config repo for the first stage, and any artifacts created in subsequent stages

Expand code block (always grab the latest version from GitHub)
variables:
- group: 'GitHubAuth'
- group: 'ServicePrincipal'
- group: 'SubscriptionMemberGroups'
stages:
- stage: Validate
  pool:
    vmImage: 'windows-latest'
  jobs:
  - job: Import
    continueOnError: false
    steps:
    - task: [email protected]
      name: CloneGraphAPI
      displayName: Clone Graph API repo
      inputs:
        script: 'git clone --branch $(Branch) --single-branch https://github.com/wesley-trust/GraphAPI.git'
        workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
    - task: [email protected]
      name: InvokeWTValidateSubscription
      displayName: Invoke-WTValidateSubscription
      inputs:
        targetType: 'inline'
        script: |

          # Dot source function
          . $(System.ArtifactsDirectory)\GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTValidateSubscription.ps1
          
          # Test if directory exist and execute function as appropriate
          $TestPath = Test-Path $(Build.Repository.LocalPath)\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Definitions -PathType Container
          if ($TestPath){
            $ValidateDefinedSubscriptions = Invoke-WTValidateSubscription `
              -Path $(Build.Repository.LocalPath)\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Definitions
          }

          # Create directory for artifact, if it does not exist
          $TestPath = Test-Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output -PathType Container
          if (!$TestPath){
            New-Item -Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output -ItemType Directory | Out-Null
          }

          # If there are Subscriptions (as if there are no Subscriptions to import, existing Subscriptions are not removed)
          if ($ValidateDefinedSubscriptions){
            
            # Convert to JSON and export
            $ValidateDefinedSubscriptions | ConvertTo-Json -Depth 10 | Out-File -Force -FilePath $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output\Validate.json
          }
        pwsh: true
        workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
    - task: [email protected]
      inputs:
        targetPath: '$(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output'
        artifact: 'Import'
        publishLocation: 'pipeline'
- stage: Plan
  pool:
    vmImage: 'windows-latest'
  dependsOn: Validate
  condition: succeeded()
  jobs:
  - job: Evaluate
    continueOnError: false
    steps:
    - task: [email protected]
      inputs:
        buildType: 'current'
        targetPath: '$(Pipeline.Workspace)'
    - task: [email protected]
      name: CloneGraphAPI
      displayName: Clone Graph API repo
      inputs:
        script: 'git clone --branch $(Branch) --single-branch https://github.com/wesley-trust/GraphAPI.git'
        workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
    - task: [email protected]
      name: CloneToolKit
      displayName: Clone Toolkit repo
      inputs:
        script: 'git clone --branch $(Branch) --single-branch https://github.com/wesley-trust/ToolKit.git'
        workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
    - task: [email protected]
      name: InvokeWTPlanSubscription
      displayName: Invoke-WTPlanSubscription
      inputs:
        targetType: 'inline'
        script: |

          # Import and convert Subscriptions from JSON, should they exist
          $TestPath = Test-Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Import\Validate.json -PathType Leaf
          if ($TestPath){
              $ValidateDefinedSubscriptions = Get-Content -Raw -Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Import\Validate.json | ConvertFrom-Json -Depth 10
          }

          # Dot source and execute function
          . $(System.ArtifactsDirectory)\GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTPlanSubscription.ps1
            $PlanDefinedSubscriptions = Invoke-WTPlanSubscription `
              -TenantDomain $(TenantDomain) `
              -ClientID ${env:CLIENTID} `
              -ClientSecret ${env:CLIENTSECRET} `
              -DefinedSubscriptions $ValidateDefinedSubscriptions `
              -RemoveDefinedSubscriptions `
              -Force

          # Create directory for artifact, if it does not exist
          $TestPath = Test-Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output -PathType Container
          if (!$TestPath){
              New-Item -Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output -ItemType Directory | Out-Null
          }

          # If there are Subscriptions
          if ($PlanDefinedSubscriptions.RemoveSubscriptions -or $PlanDefinedSubscriptions.CreateSubscriptions){

            # Set ShouldRun variable to true, for apply stage
            echo "##vso[task.setvariable variable=ShouldRun;isOutput=true]true"

            # Convert to JSON and export
            $PlanDefinedSubscriptions | ConvertTo-Json -Depth 10 | Out-File -Force -FilePath $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output\Plan.json
          }
        pwsh: true
        workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
      env:
        CLIENTID: $(ClientID)
        CLIENTSECRET: $(ClientSecret)
    - task: [email protected]
      inputs:
        targetPath: '$(Pipeline.Workspace)\Output'
        artifact: 'Evaluate'
        publishLocation: 'pipeline'
- stage: Apply
  pool:
    vmImage: 'windows-latest'
  dependsOn: Plan
  condition: and(succeeded(), eq(dependencies.Plan.outputs['Evaluate.InvokeWTPlanSubscription.ShouldRun'], 'true'))
  jobs:
  - deployment: Deploy
    continueOnError: false
    environment: $(Environment)
    strategy:
     runOnce:
       deploy:
        steps:
          - checkout: self
          - task: [email protected]
            name: CloneGraphAPI
            displayName: Clone Graph API repo
            inputs:
              script: 'git clone --branch $(Branch) --single-branch https://github.com/wesley-trust/GraphAPI.git'
              workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
          - task: [email protected]
            name: CloneToolKit
            displayName: Clone Toolkit repo
            inputs:
              script: 'git clone --branch $(Branch) --single-branch https://github.com/wesley-trust/ToolKit.git'
              workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
          - task: [email protected]
            name: InvokeWTApplySubscription
            displayName: Invoke-WTApplySubscription
            inputs:
              targetType: 'inline'
              script: |

                # Import and convert Subscriptions from JSON, should they exist
                $TestPath = Test-Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Evaluate\Plan.json -PathType Leaf
                if ($TestPath){
                    $PlanDefinedSubscriptions = Get-Content -Raw -Path $(Pipeline.Workspace)\Evaluate\Plan.json | ConvertFrom-Json -Depth 10
                }

                # Import service plan dependencies if they exist and convert from JSON
                $DependentServicePlansPath = "$(Build.Repository.LocalPath)\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Dependencies"
                $PathExists = Test-Path -Path $DependentServicePlansPath
                if ($PathExists) {
                    $DependentServicePlansFilePath = (Get-ChildItem -Path $DependentServicePlansPath -Filter "*.json").FullName
                }
                if ($DependentServicePlansFilePath) {
                    $DependentServicePlansImport = foreach ($DependentServicePlanFile in $DependentServicePlansFilePath) {
                        Get-Content -Raw -Path $DependentServicePlanFile
                    }
                }
                if ($DependentServicePlansImport) {
                    $DependentServicePlans = $DependentServicePlansImport | ConvertFrom-Json -Depth 10
                }

                # Dot source and execute function
                . $(System.ArtifactsDirectory)\GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTApplySubscription.ps1
                      Invoke-WTApplySubscription `
                        -TenantDomain $(TenantDomain) `
                        -ClientID ${env:CLIENTID} `
                        -ClientSecret ${env:CLIENTSECRET} `
                        -DefinedSubscriptions $PlanDefinedSubscriptions `
                        -DependentServicePlans $DependentServicePlans `
                        -RemoveDefinedSubscriptions `
                        -Path $(Build.SourcesDirectory)\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Definitions `
                        -Pipeline
              pwsh: true
              workingDirectory: '$(System.ArtifactsDirectory)'
            env:
              CLIENTID: $(ClientID)
              CLIENTSECRET: $(ClientSecret)
              GITHUBPAT: $(GitHubPAT)
              REPOHOME: $(Build.Repository.LocalPath)
              BRANCH: $(Branch)
              USERGROUPID: $(UserGroupID)
              GITHUBCONFIGREPO: $(GitHubConfigRepo)

What does this do?

  • Variable groups are defined and included within the pipeline
    • Including the service principal to authenticate with the Graph API and the GitHub PAT for pushing changes
      • These are set as environmental variables for tasks as appropriate
        • This is because they contain secrets that would be exposed in the pipeline if not
    • Subscription group members are defined, for adding members to the groups that are created
      • This automatically licences those members
  • The container image for the Azure DevOps agent is defined
  • Steps are defined for tasks to clone required repos
  • Each stage in the pipeline is defined
    • With a PowerShell task to load the PowerShell pipeline function into memory and execute
    • With artifacts and variables set for subsequent stages as appropriate
      • With conditions set for stages so they only trigger when there is something to do
  • In addition, pipeline variables are set to define the branch and environment the pipeline is executing
    • This allows for approvals to be put on the environment, so changes only apply when approved
    • As well as pushing changes to the correct branch in GitHub

PowerShell example below:

This function is Invoke-WTSubscriptionImport, which you can access from my GitHub. This mimics the pipeline stages.

I created this to make it easier to test locally as well as run in a Windows Server docker container using PowerShell 7.

Expand code block (always grab the latest version from GitHub)
function Invoke-WTAzureADSubscriptionImport {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client ID for the Azure AD service principal with the correct Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientID,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client secret for the Azure AD service principal with the correct Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientSecret,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The initial domain (onmicrosoft.com) of the tenant"
        )]
        [string]$TenantDomain,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The access token, obtained from executing Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
        )]
        [string]$AccessToken,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The file path to the JSON file(s) that will be imported"
        )]
        [string[]]$FilePath,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The directory path(s) of which all JSON file(s) will be imported"
        )]
        [string]$Path,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The directory path to the location where the ServicePlan dependencies will be imported"
        )]
        [string]$DependentServicePlansPath,
        [Parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether defined subscriptions deployed in the tenant will be removed, if not present in the import"
        )]
        [switch]
        $RemoveDefinedSubscriptions,
        [Parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether the groups used for subscriptions, should not be removed, if the subscription is removed"
        )]
        [switch]
        $ExcludeGroupRemoval,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether to exclude features in preview, a production API version will be used instead"
        )]
        [switch]$ExcludePreviewFeatures,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "If there are no subscriptions, whether to forcibly remove any defined subscriptions"
        )]
        [switch]$Force,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify until what stage the import should invoke. All preceding stages will execute as dependencies"
        )]
        [ValidateSet("Validate", "Plan", "Apply")]
        [string]$Stage = "Apply",
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether the function is operating within a pipeline"
        )]
        [switch]$Pipeline
    )
    Begin {
        try {
            # Function definitions
            $Functions = @(
                "GraphAPI\Public\Authentication\Get-WTGraphAccessToken.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTValidateSubscription.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTPlanSubscription.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Pipeline\Invoke-WTApplySubscription.ps1"
            )

            # Function dot source
            foreach ($Function in $Functions) {
                . $Function
            }
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    Process {
        try {

            if ($Stage -eq "Validate" -or $Stage -eq "Plan" -or $Stage -eq "Apply") {
                
                # Build Parameters
                $ValidateParameters = @{}
                if ($ExcludePreviewFeatures) {
                    $ValidateParameters.Add("ExcludePreviewFeatures", $true)
                }
                if ($FilePath) {
                    $ValidateParameters.Add("FilePath", $FilePath)
                }
                elseif ($Path) {
                    $ValidateParameters.Add("Path", $Path)
                }
            
                # Import and validate subscriptions
                Write-Host "Stage 1: Validate"
                if ($FilePath -or $Path) {
                    $TestPath = Test-Path $Path -PathType Container
                    if ($TestPath -or $FilePath) {
                        Invoke-WTValidateSubscription @ValidateParameters | Tee-Object -Variable ValidateSubscriptions
                    }
                }
            }

            if ($Stage -eq "Plan" -or $Stage -eq "Apply") {

                # If there is no access token, obtain one
                if (!$AccessToken) {
                    $AccessToken = Get-WTGraphAccessToken `
                        -ClientID $ClientID `
                        -ClientSecret $ClientSecret `
                        -TenantDomain $TenantDomain
                }

                if ($AccessToken) {

                    # Build Parameters
                    $PlanParameters = @{
                        AccessToken = $AccessToken
                    }
                    if ($ExcludePreviewFeatures) {
                        $PlanParameters.Add("ExcludePreviewFeatures", $true)
                    }
                    if ($ValidateSubscriptions) {
                        $PlanParameters.Add("DefinedSubscriptions", $ValidateSubscriptions)
                    }
                    if ($RemoveDefinedSubscriptions) {
                        $PlanParameters.Add("RemoveDefinedSubscriptions", $true)
                    }
                    if ($Force) {
                        $PlanParameters.Add("Force", $true)
                    }
                
                    # Create plan evaluating whether to create, update or remove subscriptions
                    Write-Host "Stage 2: Plan"
                    Invoke-WTPlanSubscription @PlanParameters | Tee-Object -Variable PlanSubscriptions

                }
                else {
                    $ErrorMessage = "No access token specified, obtain an access token object from Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
                    Write-Error $ErrorMessage
                    throw $ErrorMessage
                }

                if ($Stage -eq "Apply") {
                    if ($PlanSubscriptions) {
                        
                        # Import service plan dependencies if they exist and convert from JSON
                        if ($DependentServicePlansPath) {
                            $PathExists = Test-Path -Path $DependentServicePlansPath
                            if ($PathExists) {
                                $DependentServicePlansFilePath = (Get-ChildItem -Path $DependentServicePlansPath -Filter "*.json").FullName
                            }
                            if ($DependentServicePlansFilePath) {
                                $DependentServicePlansImport = foreach ($DependentServicePlanFile in $DependentServicePlansFilePath) {
                                    Get-Content -Raw -Path $DependentServicePlanFile
                                }
                            }
                            if ($DependentServicePlansImport) {
                                $DependentServicePlans = $DependentServicePlansImport | ConvertFrom-Json -Depth 10
                            }
                        }

                        # Build Parameters
                        $ApplyParameters = @{
                            AccessToken          = $AccessToken
                            DefinedSubscriptions = $PlanSubscriptions
                        }
                        if ($ExcludePreviewFeatures) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("ExcludePreviewFeatures", $true)
                        }
                        if ($RemoveDefinedSubscriptions) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("RemoveDefinedSubscriptions", $true)
                        }
                        if ($ExcludeGroupRemoval) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("ExcludeGroupRemoval", $true)
                        }
                        if ($FilePath) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("FilePath", $FilePath)
                        }
                        elseif ($Path) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("Path", $Path)
                        }
                        if ($Pipeline) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("Pipeline", $true)
                        }
                        if ($DependentServicePlans) {
                            $ApplyParameters.Add("DependentServicePlans", $DependentServicePlans)
                        }

                        # Apply plan to Azure AD
                        Write-Host "Stage 3: Apply"
                        Invoke-WTApplySubscription @ApplyParameters
                    }
                    else {
                        $WarningMessage = "No subscriptions will be created, updated or removed, as none exist that are different to the import"
                        Write-Warning $WarningMessage
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    End {
        try {
            
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
}

Import & Validate

This function is Invoke-WTValidateSubscription, which you can access from my GitHub.

This imports JSON definitions of subscriptions, or imports subscription objects via a parameter, and validates these against a set of criteria.

Outputting a JSON validate file (as appropriate) as a pipeline artifact for the next stage in the pipeline.

What does this do?

  • This sets specific variables, including the required properties that must be present in the input
  • To import, a file path to specific files or a directory path from which all files will be imported is required
    • Alternatively, a subscription or collection of subscriptions can also be passed in a parameter to validate
  • This then checks for the properties each subscription has
    • Each required property that is missing is added to a variable
  • A check is then performed as to whether the properties contain a value
    • This is again added to a variable if null
  • A validate object is then built for each subscription with failed checks
  • Information is then returned about whether the subscription passed validation, and if not, why each subscription failed
  • If successful, the validated subscription objects are returned

The complete function as at this date, is below:

Expand code block (always grab the latest version from GitHub)
function Invoke-WTValidateSubscription {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The file path to the JSON file(s) that will be imported"
        )]
        [string[]]$FilePath,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The directory path(s) of which all JSON file(s) will be imported"
        )]
        [string]$Path,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            ValueFromPipeLine = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The Azure AD Subscriptions to be validated if not imported from a JSON file"
        )]
        [Alias('Subscription', 'SubscriptionDefinition')]
        [PSCustomObject]$DefinedSubscriptions,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether files should be imported only, and not validated"
        )]
        [switch]$ImportOnly
    )
    Begin {
        try {
            # Variables
            $RequiredProperties = @("skuPartNumber","skuId","servicePlans","capabilityStatus","appliesTo")
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    Process {
        try {

            # For each directory, get the file path of all JSON files within the directory, if the directory exists
            if ($Path) {
                $PathExists = Test-Path -Path $Path
                if ($PathExists) {
                    $FilePath = (Get-ChildItem -Path $Path -Filter "*.json").FullName
                }
                else {
                    $ErrorMessage = "The provided path does not exist $Path, please check the path is correct"
                    throw $ErrorMessage
                }
            }

            # Import Subscriptions from JSON file, if the files exist
            if ($FilePath) {
                $SubscriptionImport = foreach ($File in $FilePath) {
                    $FilePathExists = Test-Path -Path $File
                    if ($FilePathExists) {
                        Get-Content -Raw -Path $File
                    }
                    else {
                        $ErrorMessage = "The provided filepath $File does not exist, please check the path is correct"
                        throw $ErrorMessage
                    }
                }
                
                # If import was successful, convert from JSON
                if ($SubscriptionImport) {
                    $DefinedSubscriptions = $SubscriptionImport | ConvertFrom-Json
                }
                else {
                    $ErrorMessage = "No JSON files could be imported, please check the filepath is correct"
                    throw $ErrorMessage
                }
            }

            # If there are subscriptions imported, run validation checks
            if ($DefinedSubscriptions) {
                
                # Output current action
                Write-Host "Importing Defined Subscriptions"
                Write-Host "Subscriptions: $($DefinedSubscriptions.count)"
                
                foreach ($Subscription in $DefinedSubscriptions) {
                    if ($Subscription.skuPartNumber) {
                        Write-Host "Import: Subscription Name: $($Subscription.skuPartNumber)"
                    }
                    elseif ($Subscription.id) {
                        Write-Host "Import: Subscription Id: $($Subscription.id)"
                    }
                    else {
                        Write-Host "Import: Subscription Invalid"
                    }
                }

                # If import only is set, return subscriptions without validating
                if ($ImportOnly) {
                    $DefinedSubscriptions
                }
                else {
                        
                    # Output current action
                    Write-Host "Validating Defined Subscriptions"
    
                    # For each policy, run validation checks
                    $InvalidSubscriptions = foreach ($Subscription in $DefinedSubscriptions) {
                        $SubscriptionValidate = $null
    
                        # Check for missing properties
                        $SubscriptionProperties = $null
                        $SubscriptionProperties = ($Subscription | Get-Member -MemberType NoteProperty).name
                        $PropertyCheck = $null

                        # Check whether each required property, exists in the list of properties for the object
                        $PropertyCheck = foreach ($Property in $RequiredProperties) {
                            if ($Property -notin $SubscriptionProperties) {
                                $Property
                            }
                        }

                        # Check whether each required property has a value, if not, return property
                        $PropertyValueCheck = $null
                        $PropertyValueCheck = foreach ($Property in $RequiredProperties) {
                            if ($null -eq $Subscription.$Property) {
                                $Property
                            }
                        }
    
                        # Build and return object
                        if ($PropertyCheck -or $PropertyValueCheck) {
                            $SubscriptionValidate = [ordered]@{}
                            if ($Subscription.skuPartNumber) {
                                $SubscriptionValidate.Add("skuPartNumber", $Subscription.skuPartNumber)
                            }
                            elseif ($Subscription.id) {
                                $SubscriptionValidate.Add("Id", $Subscription.id)
                            }
                        }
                        if ($PropertyCheck) {
                            $SubscriptionValidate.Add("MissingProperties", $PropertyCheck)
                        }
                        if ($PropertyValueCheck) {
                            $SubscriptionValidate.Add("MissingPropertyValues", $PropertyValueCheck)
                        }
                        if ($SubscriptionValidate) {
                            [PSCustomObject]$SubscriptionValidate
                        }
                    }

                    # Return validation result for each policy
                    if ($InvalidSubscriptions) {
                        Write-Host "Invalid subscriptions: $($InvalidSubscriptions.count) out of $($DefinedSubscriptions.count) imported"
                        foreach ($Subscription in $InvalidSubscriptions) {
                            if ($Subscription.skuPartNumber) {
                                Write-Host "INVALID: Subscription Name: $($Subscription.skuPartNumber)" -ForegroundColor Yellow
                            }
                            elseif ($Subscription.id) {
                                Write-Host "INVALID: Subscription Id: $($Subscription.id)" -ForegroundColor Yellow
                            }
                            else {
                                Write-Host "INVALID: No skuPartNumber or Id for policy" -ForegroundColor Yellow
                            }
                            if ($Subscription.MissingProperties) {
                                Write-Warning "Required properties not present ($($Subscription.MissingProperties.count)): $($Subscription.MissingProperties)"
                            }
                            if ($Subscription.MissingPropertyValues) {
                                Write-Warning "Required property values not present ($($Subscription.MissingPropertyValues.count)): $($Subscription.MissingPropertyValues)"
                            }
                        }
    
                        # Abort import
                        $ErrorMessage = "Validation of subscriptions was not successful, review configuration files and any warnings generated"
                        Write-Error $ErrorMessage
                        throw $ErrorMessage
                    }
                    else {

                        # Return validated subscriptions
                        Write-Host "All subscriptions have passed validation for required properties and values"
                        $ValidSubscriptions = $DefinedSubscriptions
                        $ValidSubscriptions
                    }
                }
                
            }
            else {
                $ErrorMessage = "No Subscriptions to be imported, import may have failed or none may exist"
                throw $ErrorMessage
            }
            
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    End {
        try {
            
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
}

Plan & Evaluate

This function is Invoke-WTPlanSubscription, which you can access from my GitHub.

Within the pipeline, this imports the validated JSON artifact of subscriptions (should they exist), which is passed to the function via a parameter. This then creates a plan of what should be created, updated or removed (as appropriate).

Outputting a JSON plan file (as appropriate) as a pipeline artifact for the next stage in the pipeline.

What does this do?

  • Specific variables are set and any dependent functions are imported into memory
  • An access token is obtained, if one is not provided, this allows the same token to be shared within the pipeline
  • Checks are performed about whether to evaluate subscriptions for removal
  • Existing subscriptions in Azure AD are obtained from the get subscriptions function, in order to compare against the validated import
  • An object comparison is performed on the skuPartNumber, determining:
    • What defined subscriptions could be removed (as they don’t exist in Azure AD, but were in the import)
      • So should have their groups removed and the definitions removed in the config repo
    • What existing subscriptions need their definitions creating (as they exist in Azure AD, but were not defined in the import)
      • So should have groups created, subscriptions assigned and definitions created in the config repo
  • A safety check is performed if no subscriptions exist but were defined in the import, so removing all defined subscriptions requires a “Force” switch
  • If subscriptions should not be removed, the variable for removing subscriptions is cleared
  • If no subscriptions exist in the import, any existing subscriptions must all be created, so the variable is updated
  • An object is then built containing the subscriptions to be removed or created (as appropriate)
  • This object is then returned as a plan of action, which is output as a pipeline artifact for the next stage

The complete function as at this date, is below:

Expand code block (always grab the latest version from GitHub)
function Invoke-WTPlanSubscription {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client ID for the Azure AD service principal with Subscription Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientID,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client secret for the Azure AD service principal with Subscription Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientSecret,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The initial domain (onmicrosoft.com) of the tenant"
        )]
        [string]$TenantDomain,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The access token, obtained from executing Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
        )]
        [string]$AccessToken,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            ValueFromPipeLine = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The Subscription object"
        )]
        [Alias("Subscription", "SubscriptionDefinition", "Subscriptions")]
        [PSCustomObject]$DefinedSubscriptions,
        [Parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether current Subscription deployed in the tenant will be removed, if not present in the import"
        )]
        [switch]
        $RemoveDefinedSubscriptions,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether to exclude features in preview, a production API version will be used instead"
        )]
        [switch]$ExcludePreviewFeatures,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "If there are no Subscription to import, whether to forcibly remove any current Subscription"
        )]
        [switch]$Force
    )
    Begin {
        try {
            # Function definitions
            $Functions = @(
                "GraphAPI\Public\Authentication\Get-WTGraphAccessToken.ps1",
                "Toolkit\Public\Invoke-WTPropertyTagging.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Get-WTAzureADSubscription.ps1"
            )

            # Function dot source
            foreach ($Function in $Functions) {
                . $Function
            }

        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    Process {
        try {
            
            # If there is no access token, obtain one
            if (!$AccessToken) {
                $AccessToken = Get-WTGraphAccessToken `
                    -ClientID $ClientID `
                    -ClientSecret $ClientSecret `
                    -TenantDomain $TenantDomain
            }

            if ($AccessToken) {

                # Output current action
                Write-Host "Evaluating Subscriptions"
                
                # Build Parameters
                $Parameters = @{
                    AccessToken = $AccessToken
                }
                if ($ExcludePreviewFeatures) {
                    $Parameters.Add("ExcludePreviewFeatures", $true)
                }

                # Get user subscriptions that have not been deleted
                $CurrentSubscriptions = Get-WTAzureADSubscription @Parameters
                $AssignableSubscriptions = $CurrentSubscriptions | Where-Object {
                    $_.capabilityStatus -ne "Deleted" -and $_.appliesTo -eq "User"
                }

                if ($DefinedSubscriptions) {

                    if ($AssignableSubscriptions) {

                        # Compare object on id and pass thru all objects, including those that exist and are to be imported
                        $SubscriptionComparison = Compare-Object `
                            -ReferenceObject $AssignableSubscriptions `
                            -DifferenceObject $DefinedSubscriptions `
                            -Property skuPartNumber `
                            -PassThru

                        # Filter for defined Subscription that should be removed, as they exist only in the import
                        $RemoveSubscriptions = $SubscriptionComparison | Where-Object { $_.sideindicator -eq "=>" }

                        # Filter for defined Subscription that should be created, as they exist only in Azure AD
                        $CreateSubscriptions = $SubscriptionComparison | Where-Object { $_.sideindicator -eq "<=" }
                    }
                    else {

                        # If force is enabled, then if removal of Subscription is specified, all current will be removed
                        if ($Force) {
                            $RemoveSubscriptions = $DefinedSubscriptions
                        }
                    }

                    if (!$RemoveDefinedSubscriptions) {

                        # If Subscription are not to be removed, disregard any Subscription for removal
                        $RemoveSubscriptions = $null
                    }
                }
                else {
                    
                    # If no defined subscription exist, any enabled subscriptions should be defined
                    $CreateSubscriptions = $AssignableSubscriptions
                }
                
                # Build object to return
                $PlanSubscriptions = [ordered]@{}

                if ($RemoveSubscriptions) {
                    $PlanSubscriptions.Add("RemoveSubscriptions", $RemoveSubscriptions)
                    
                    # Output current action
                    Write-Host "Defined Subscription to remove: $($RemoveSubscriptions.count)"

                    foreach ($Subscription in $RemoveSubscriptions) {
                        Write-Host "Remove: Subscription ID: $($Subscription.id) (Subscription Groups will be removed as appropriate)" -ForegroundColor DarkRed
                    }
                }
                else {
                    Write-Host "No Subscription will be removed, as none exist that are different to the import"
                }
                if ($CreateSubscriptions) {
                    $PlanSubscriptions.Add("CreateSubscriptions", $CreateSubscriptions)
                                        
                    # Output current action
                    Write-Host "Defined Subscription to create: $($CreateSubscriptions.count) (Subscription Groups will be created as appropriate)"

                    foreach ($Subscription in $CreateSubscriptions) {
                        Write-Host "Create: Subscription Name: $($Subscription.skuPartNumber)" -ForegroundColor DarkGreen
                    }
                }
                else {
                    Write-Host "No Subscription will be created, as none exist that are different to the import"
                }

                # If there are Subscription, return PS object
                if ($PlanSubscriptions) {
                    $PlanSubscriptions = [PSCustomObject]$PlanSubscriptions
                    $PlanSubscriptions
                }
            }
            else {
                $ErrorMessage = "No access token specified, obtain an access token object from Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
                Write-Error $ErrorMessage
                throw $ErrorMessage
            }
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    End {
        try {
            
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
}

Apply & Deploy

This function is Invoke-WTApplySubscription, which you can access from my GitHub.

Within the pipeline, this imports the plan JSON artifact of subscriptions, which is passed to the function via a parameter. This contains the subscriptions that should have groups created or removed (as appropriate), as well as licences assigned and definitions created or removed (as appropriate).

What does this do?

The complete function as at this date, is below:

Expand code block (always grab the latest version from GitHub)
function Invoke-WTApplySubscription {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client ID for the Azure AD service principal with Subscription Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientID,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Client secret for the Azure AD service principal with Subscription Graph permissions"
        )]
        [string]$ClientSecret,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The initial domain (onmicrosoft.com) of the tenant"
        )]
        [string]$TenantDomain,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The access token, obtained from executing Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
        )]
        [string]$AccessToken,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The Subscription object"
        )]
        [Alias("Subscription", "SubscriptionDefinition", "Subscriptions")]
        [PSCustomObject]$DefinedSubscriptions,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The dependent service plan objects"
        )]
        [Alias("ServicePlan", "ServicePlans", "DependentServicePlan")]
        [PSCustomObject]$DependentServicePlans,
        [Parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether existing subscriptions deployed in the tenant will be removed, if not present in the import"
        )]
        [switch]
        $RemoveDefinedSubscriptions,
        [Parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether to the groups used for subscriptions, should not be removed, if the subscription is removed"
        )]
        [switch]
        $ExcludeGroupRemoval,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether to exclude features in preview, a production API version will be used instead"
        )]
        [switch]$ExcludePreviewFeatures,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The file path to the JSON file(s) that will be exported"
        )]
        [string]$FilePath,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "The directory path(s) of which all JSON file(s) will be exported"
        )]
        [string]$Path,
        [parameter(
            Mandatory = $false,
            ValueFromPipeLineByPropertyName = $true,
            HelpMessage = "Specify whether the function is operating within a pipeline"
        )]
        [switch]$Pipeline
    )
    Begin {
        try {
            # Function definitions
            $Functions = @(
                "GraphAPI\Public\Authentication\Get-WTGraphAccessToken.ps1",
                "Toolkit\Public\Invoke-WTPropertyTagging.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Groups\Get-WTAADSubscriptionGroup.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Groups\New-WTAADSubscriptionGroup.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Groups\Remove-WTAADSubscriptionGroup.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Get-WTAzureADSubscriptionDependency.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Subscriptions\Export-WTAzureADSubscription.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Groups\Export-WTAzureADGroup.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Groups\Relationship\Get-WTAzureADGroupRelationship.ps1",
                "GraphAPI\Public\AzureAD\Groups\Relationship\New-WTAzureADGroupRelationship.ps1"
            )

            # Function dot source
            foreach ($Function in $Functions) {
                . $Function
            }

            # Variables
            $Tag = "SKU"
            $PropertyToTag = "displayName"
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    Process {
        try {

            # If there is no access token, obtain one
            if (!$AccessToken) {
                $AccessToken = Get-WTGraphAccessToken `
                    -ClientID $ClientID `
                    -ClientSecret $ClientSecret `
                    -TenantDomain $TenantDomain
            }

            if ($AccessToken) {

                # Output current action
                Write-Host "Deploying Subscriptions"

                # Build Parameters
                $Parameters = @{
                    AccessToken = $AccessToken
                }
                if ($ExcludePreviewFeatures) {
                    $Parameters.Add("ExcludePreviewFeatures", $true)
                }

                if ($RemoveDefinedSubscriptions) {

                    # If subscriptions require removing, pass the ids to the remove function
                    if ($DefinedSubscriptions.RemoveSubscriptions) {
                        
                        # Get and tag group for the subscriptions
                        $SubscriptionGroups = Get-WTAADSubscriptionGroup
                        $TaggedSubscriptionGroups = Invoke-WTPropertyTagging -Tags $Tag -QueryResponse $SubscriptionGroups -PropertyToTag $PropertyToTag

                        # Path to group config
                        $GroupsPath = $Path + "\..\Groups"

                        # Remove subscription definition and groups
                        $SubscriptionSkuPartNumbers = $DefinedSubscriptions.RemoveSubscriptions.skuPartNumber
                        foreach ($SubscriptionSkuPartNumber in $SubscriptionSkuPartNumbers) {
                            Remove-Item -Path "$Path\$SubscriptionSkuPartNumber.json"
                        
                            # If the switch to not remove groups is not set, remove the groups for each Subscription also
                            if (!$ExcludeGroupRemoval) {

                                # Identify the group for the subscription
                                $SubscriptionGroup = $null
                                $SubscriptionGroup = $TaggedSubscriptionGroups | Where-Object {
                                    $_.$Tag -eq $SubscriptionSkuPartNumber
                                }

                                # If there is a group, pass the id which will perform a check and remove only subscription groups
                                if ($SubscriptionGroup) {
                                    
                                    # Remove group (licences should no longer be assigned to deleted subscriptions)
                                    Remove-WTAADSubscriptionGroup @Parameters -IDs $SubscriptionGroup.id

                                    # Remove group config
                                    Remove-Item -Path "$GroupsPath\$($SubscriptionGroup.displayName).json"
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    else {
                        $WarningMessage = "No subscriptions will be removed, as none exist that are different to the import"
                        Write-Warning $WarningMessage
                    }
                }

                # If there are new subscriptions create the groups
                if ($DefinedSubscriptions.CreateSubscriptions) {
                    $CreateSubscriptions = $DefinedSubscriptions.CreateSubscriptions

                    # Find subscriptions with service plan dependencies
                    if ($DependentServicePlans) {
                        $DependentSubscriptions = Get-WTAzureADSubscriptionDependency @Parameters `
                            -Subscriptions $CreateSubscriptions `
                            -ServicePlans $DependentServicePlans `
                            -DependencyType SkuId
                    }

                    # Calculate the display names to be used for the Subscription groups
                    $SubscriptionGroupDisplayName = foreach ($Subscription in $CreateSubscriptions) {
                        "$Tag" + "-" + $Subscription.skuPartNumber + ";"
                    }

                    # Create groups
                    $SubscriptionGroups = New-WTAADSubscriptionGroup @Parameters -DisplayName $SubscriptionGroupDisplayName

                    # Tag groups
                    $TaggedSubscriptionGroups = Invoke-WTPropertyTagging -Tags $Tag -QueryResponse $SubscriptionGroups -PropertyToTag $PropertyToTag

                    # For each subscription, perform subscription specific changes
                    foreach ($Subscription in $CreateSubscriptions) {

                        # Find the matching group
                        $SubscriptionGroup = $null
                        $SubscriptionGroup = $TaggedSubscriptionGroups | Where-Object {
                            $_.$Tag -eq $Subscription.skuPartNumber
                        }

                        # If there is a group for this subscription (as subscriptions may not always have groups)
                        if ($SubscriptionGroup) {
                            
                            # If this subscription is in the list of dependent subscriptions
                            if ($Subscription.skuId -in $DependentSubscriptions.skuId) {
                                
                                # Filter to the specific subscription dependency
                                $DependentSubscription = $null
                                $DependentSubscription = $DependentSubscriptions | Where-Object {
                                    $_.skuId -eq $Subscription.skuId
                                }

                                # Assign each required sku for the dependent subscription
                                foreach ($SkuId in $DependentSubscription.RequiredSkuId) {
                                    New-WTAzureADGroupRelationship @Parameters `
                                        -Id $SubscriptionGroup.id `
                                        -Relationship "assignLicense" `
                                        -RelationshipIDs $SkuId `
                                    | Out-Null
                                }
                            }

                            # Assign licence to group
                            New-WTAzureADGroupRelationship @Parameters `
                                -Id $SubscriptionGroup.id `
                                -Relationship "assignLicense" `
                                -RelationshipIDs $Subscription.skuId `
                            | Out-Null
                            
                            # Workaround lack of nested group support, by getting users that should be licenced
                            if (${ENV:UserGroupID}) {
                                $Members = Get-WTAzureADGroupRelationship @Parameters `
                                    -Id ${ENV:UserGroupID} `
                                    -Relationship "members"
                                
                                # Then adding the users that should be licenced directly to the group
                                if ($Members) {
                                    New-WTAzureADGroupRelationship @Parameters `
                                        -Id $SubscriptionGroup.id `
                                        -Relationship "members" `
                                        -RelationshipIDs $Members.id
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    # Export subscriptions
                    Export-WTAzureADSubscription -DefinedSubscriptions $CreateSubscriptions `
                        -Path $Path `
                        -ExcludeExportCleanup

                    # Path to group config
                    $GroupsPath = $Path + "\..\Groups"

                    # Export groups
                    Export-WTAzureADGroup -AzureADGroups $SubscriptionGroups `
                        -Path $GroupsPath `
                        -ExcludeExportCleanup `
                        -ExcludeTagEvaluation

                    # If executing in a pipeline, stage, commit and push the changes back to the repo
                    if ($Pipeline) {
                        Write-Host "Commit configuration changes post pipeline deployment"
                        Set-Location ${ENV:REPOHOME}
                        git config user.email AzurePipeline@wesleytrust.com
                        git config user.name AzurePipeline
                        git add -A
                        git commit -a -m "Commit configuration changes post deployment [skip ci]"
                        git push https://${ENV:GITHUBPAT}@github.com/wesley-trust/${ENV:GITHUBCONFIGREPO}.git HEAD:${ENV:BRANCH}
                    }
                }
                else {
                    $WarningMessage = "No subscriptions will be created, as none exist that are different to the import"
                    Write-Warning $WarningMessage
                }
            }
            else {
                $ErrorMessage = "No access token specified, obtain an access token object from Get-WTGraphAccessToken"
                Write-Error $ErrorMessage
                throw $ErrorMessage
            }
        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
    End {
        try {

        }
        catch {
            Write-Error -Message $_.Exception
            throw $_.exception
        }
    }
}